Special Populations

Despite substantial improvements in health services, special populations remain disproportionately at risk.

Maternal and perinatal conditions represented the single largest contributor to the global burden of disease in 2001. More than 99 percent of maternal deaths and 99 percent of neonatal deaths occur in the developing world. Increased access to skilled care, medications, and a well-functioning health care system can significantly reduce these deaths.

In 2000, almost 11 million children in developing countries died before their fifth birthday. Deaths are concentrated among those who suffer from diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria and other infectious disease, and malnutrition. Providing integrated management of childhood illness can dramatically help by upgrading health workers’ performance, strengthening health systems, and improving family and community practices.

Adolescence is a critical time for adopting or avoiding behaviors that increase the risk of serious illness in the future. Relatively few health initiatives are available on a large scale for this population, and implementing such programs requires coordinating a complex range of interventions.

Sub-topics

Find more specific references for the following sub-topic(s):
  1. Child and Adolescent Health
  2. Maternal and Neonatal Health
  3. Women's Health

Publications

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Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries (2nd Edition)
  1. 25. Acute Respiratory Infections in Children
  2. 59. Adolescent Health Programs
  3. 43. Air and Water Pollution: Burden and Strategies for Control
  4. 47. Alcohol
  5. 33. Cardiovascular Disease
  6. 56. Community Health and Nutrition Programs
  7. 21. Conquering Malaria
  8. 57. Contraception
  9. 62. Control and Eradication
  10. 15. Cost–Effectiveness Analysis for Priority Setting
  11. 51. Cost–Effectiveness of Interventions for Musculoskeletal Conditions
  12. 30. Diabetes: The Pandemic and Potential Solutions
  13. 19. Diarrheal Diseases
  14. 36. Diseases of the Kidney and the Urinary System
  15. 55. Drug Resistance
  16. 68. Emergency Medical Services
  17. 11. Fiscal Policies for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
  18. 10. Gender Differentials in Health
  19. 64. General Primary Care
  20. 29. Health Service Interventions for Cancer Control in Developing Countries
  21. 71. Health Workers: Building and Motivating the Workforce
  22. 24. Helminth Infections: Soil–Transmitted Helminth Infections and Schistosomiasis
  23. 18. HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment
  24. 48. Illicit Opiate Abuse
  25. 8. Improving the Health of Populations: Lessons of Experience
  26. 42. Indoor Air Pollution
  27. 34. Inherited Disorders of Hemoglobin
  28. 63. Integrated Management of the Sick Child
  29. 40. Interpersonal Violence
  30. 2. Intervention Cost–Effectiveness: Overview of Main Messages
  31. 1. Investing in Health
  32. 49. Learning and Developmental Disabilities
  33. 50. Loss of Vision and Hearing
  34. 26. Maternal and Perinatal Conditions
  35. 31. Mental Disorders
  36. 9. Millennium Development Goals for Health: What Will It Take to Accelerate Progress?
  37. 32. Neurological Disorders
  38. 27. Newborn Survival
  39. 38. Oral and Craniofacial Diseases and Disorders
  40. 44. Prevention of Chronic Disease by Means of Diet and Lifestyle Changes
  41. 4. Priorities for Global Research and Development of Interventions
  42. 13. Recent Trends and Innovations in Development Assistance for Health
  43. 58. School–Based Health and Nutrition Programs
  44. 5. Science and Technology for Disease Control: Past, Present, and Future
  45. 17. Sexually Transmitted Infections
  46. 3. Strengthening Health Systems
  47. 28. Stunting, Wasting, and Micronutrient Deficiency Disorders
  48. 65. The District Hospital
  49. 46. Tobacco Addiction
  50. 16. Tuberculosis
  51. 39. Unintentional Injuries
  52. 20. Vaccine–Preventable Diseases
  53. 41. Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene Promotion
Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors
  1. 4. Comparative Quantification of Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Risk Factors
  2. 2. Demographic and Epidemiological Characteristics of Major Regions, 1990—2001
  3. 6. Incorporating Deaths Near the Time of Birth into Estimates of the Global Burden of Disease
  4. 1. Measuring the Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors, 1990—2001
  5. 5. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analyses for Burden of Disease and Risk Factor Estimates
  6. 3. The Burden of Disease and Mortality by Condition: Data, Methods, and Results for 2001
Priorities in Health
  1. 1. Accomplishments, Challenges, and Priorities
  2. 5. Cost–Effective Strategies for Noncommunicable Diseases, Risk Factors, and Behaviors
  3. 4. Cost–Effective Strategies for the Excess Burden of Disease in Developing Countries
  4. 3. Cost–Effectiveness Analysis
  5. 7. Pillars of the Health System
  6. 6. Providing Interventions
  7. 2. Success in Addressing Priorities
  8. 8. The Way Forward: A Blueprint for Action

Chapter Presentations

Chapter 02. Intervention Cost-Effectiveness: Overview of Main Messages
  1. Cost-effectiveness of Interventions for Childhood Conditions in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
  2. Neglected Low-Cost Opportunities in Sub-Saharan Africa: HIV/AIDS and Maternal and Neonatal Care
  3. Neglected Low-Cost Opportunities in Sub-Saharan Africa: Childhood Immunization, Malaria, and Childhood Illnesses
  4. Neglected Low-Cost Opportunities in South Asia: Childhood Immunization, Lower Acute Respiratory Illness, and Maternal and Neonatal Care
Chapter 01. Investing in Health
  1. The Burden of Disease, 2001
  2. Reducing Under-five Mortality: How much health will a million dollars buy?
  3. Causes of Death, 2001
Chapter 04. Priorities for Global Research and Development of Interventions
  1. Disease Burden Distribution, by Select World Bank Region, 2001
  2. Disease Burden Distribution, by Select World Bank Region, 2001
Chapter 20. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases
  1. Cost per Deaths and Disability Adjusted Life Years Averted by Vaccination, 2001
  2. Deaths Averted by Vaccination for Hib and Hepatitis B, 2001
  3. Deaths Averted by Vaccination for Measles and Yellow Fever, 2001
  4. Annual Cost per Fully Immunized Child for the Traditional Childhood Vaccines, By Region, 2001
  5. Annual Cost per Fully Immunized Child for the Traditional Childhood Vaccines, By Immunization Strategy, 2001
  6. Disability Adjusted Life Years Lost from Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, 2001
  7. Deaths Averted by Vaccination for Tetanus and Polio, 2001
Chapter 09. Millennium Development Goals for Health: What Will It Take to Accelerate Progress?
  1. Effective Interventions to Achieve the Maternal Mortality MDG
  2. Effective Interventions to Achieve the Child Mortality MDG
Chapter 10. Gender Differentials in Health
  1. Gender Ratio of Conditions that Affect Women Disproportionately, 2001
  2. Percentage of DALYs Resulting from Selected Conditions Specific to Women, 2001
  3. Burden of Disease, By Gender and Age, 2001
  4. Burden of Disease, By Gender and Region, 2001
  5. Gender Ratio of Conditions that Affect Women Disproportionately, 2001
  6. Cost-effectiveness of Selected Interventions for Maternal Conditions
  7. Cost-effectiveness of Selected Interventions for Chlamydia Infection
  8. Cost-effectiveness of Selected Interventions for Cervical Cancer
Chapter 26. Maternal and Perinatal Conditions
  1. Direct Causes of Maternal Mortality
  2. Estimates of Maternal Mortality, By Region, 2000
  3. Cost-effectiveness of Interventions for Maternal and Perinatal Conditions
  4. DALYs for Maternal and Early Neonatal* Conditions, Selected Regions, 2001
  5. Deaths in the First Week of Life, Selected Regions, 2001
Chapter 28. Stunting, Wasting, and Micronutrient Deficiency Disorders
  1. Vitamin A Deficiency Among Children Under Age Five, By Region
  2. Zinc Deficiency Among Children Under Age Five, By Region
  3. Iron Deficiency Anemia Among Children Under Age Five, By Region
  4. Percent of Underweight Children Under Age Five, By Region
  5. Childhood Deaths and DALYs Attributable to Being Underweight, By Region
  6. Iodine Deficiency Among Children Under Age Five, By Region
  7. Cost-effectiveness of Nutrition Interventions for Underweight Children
  8. Cost-effectiveness of Nutrition Interventions for Vitamin A Deficiency in Children
  9. Cost-effectiveness of Nutrition Interventions for Iron, Iodine, and Zinc Deficiency in Children
Chapter 21. Conquering Malaria
  1. Estimated Deaths from Malaria in Children Under Age Five in Africa, 2000
Chapter 59. Adolescent Health Programs
  1. Young People Ages 20-24 Who Were Married Before Age 20, By Gender
  2. Young Sexually Active Women Using Contraception, By Age Group
  3. Estimated Cost and Cost-effectiveness of Selected Adolescent Health Programs
  4. Worldwide Distribution of DALYs Lost Among Young Women, By Age Group, 2002
  5. Young Women Ages 20-24 Who Had a Child Before Age 18, By Region
  6. Worldwide Distribution of DALYs Lost Among Young Men, By Age Group, 2002
  7. Young Sexually Active Women Using Contraception, By Age Group
Chapter 27. Newborn Survival
  1. Cost of Adding Newborn Care Packages to Maternal and Child Health Services
Chapter 65. The District Hospital
  1. Effectiveness of a Kenyan District Hospital in Preventing Childhood Deaths
Chapter 57. Contraception
  1. Average Cost of Family Planning Services per Infant and Maternal Death Averted
  2. Total Potential Demand for Family Planning in Selected Countries
  3. Average Cost of Family Planning Services per Birth Averted and per DALY Averted
  4. Maternal Burden of Disease Associated with Unwanted Pregnancy and Unsafe Abortion

Resources

Related Analysis
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Fact Sheets
  1. Child Health (PDF | 970.7k)
 

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